Here comes the era of “Quantum computers” with the striking experiments in quantum physics by the Nobel laureates Serge Haroche and David Wineland. Both of them opened new windows to the world of quantum physics with their studies on the quantum particles. Their observation and experiments on single quantum particles without destroying them resulted in a grand discovery which awarded them the Nobel Prize.
What is a Quantum particle?
A particle which has an ironic property of being on (there) and off (not there) at the same time can be called as Quantum particle.
• Management of delicate quantum states and can control these states effectively
• Possible to construct extremely precise and specific clocks which is 100 times accurate than today’s Cesium clocks.
If we are considering small and single particles of matter or light, it is the domain of quantum physics and it was nearly impossible to isolate these particles from the surrounding environment without losing its quantum properties. Serge and David studied Quantum optics and observed the basic interaction between matter and light. The methods of both Serge and David had several factors in common.
This is the micro trap used for the experiment.
- In the experiments carried out by David, electrically charged ions or atoms are trapped and then measured and controlled with the help of photons or light.
- According to Serge’s methods, trapped photons are controlled and measured by sending atoms through a tough trap.
David Wineland’s Experiments:
He conducted these experiments at his laboratory at Colorado. Electrically charged ions or atoms are the primary focus here. These atoms are kept inside a tough trap (surrounding it with electric fields). The experiments are performed in vacuum and at very low temperatures. The particles are specifically isolated from the radiation and heat in their environment by the experiment.
The thermal motion of ion is suppressed in the trap with the help of laser. This helps to keep the ion in lowest energy state. This trapped ion can be used to study Quantum phenomena in detail. If the laser pulse is carefully tuned, it can be effectively used to keep the ion in a “superposition state”. Thus a single ion can be kept at two diverse energy levels. So there is a probability to keep the ion in between two states.
Have you heard of Quantum computers? With Quantum physics, we can create a powerful machine which could change the phase of technology.
What is the difference between normal computer and Quantum computer?
Here comes the power of this research and studies on Quantum physics. In a normal computer, digital logic is the basis of all operations. There are two states- on or off. Using a single bit, we can represent these two states. This binary system is the heart of all the activities, image representations and even Google search.
Qubits are the building blocks of Quantum computers. “Qubits “are the Quantum bits which can be used to represent on or off states at the same time. Compared to a regular computer, qubits helps to solve problems extremely faster. Cryptographic problems can be solved in real time with the help of this system!